The Chip Titan Whose Life’s Work Is at the Center of a Tech Cold War

In a wood-paneled office overlooking Taipei and the jungle-covered mountains that surround the Taiwanese capital, Morris Chang recently pulled out an old book stamped with technicolor patterns.

It was titled “Introduction to VLSI Systems,” a graduate-level textbook describing the intricacies of computer chip design. Mr. Chang, 92, held it up with reverence.

“I want to show you the date of this book, 1980,” he said. The timing was important, he added, as it was “the earliest piece” in a puzzle that came together for him — altering not only his career but also the course of the global electronics industry.

The insight that Mr. Chang gained from the textbook was deceptively simple: the idea that microchips, which act as the brains of computers, could be designed in one place but manufactured somewhere else. The notion went against the semiconductor industry’s standard practice at the time.

So at the age of 54, when many people begin thinking more about retirement, Mr. Chang instead put himself on a path to turn his insight into a reality. The engineer left his adopted country, the United States, and moved to Taiwan where he founded Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, or TSMC. The company does not design chips, but it has become the world’s biggest manufacturer of cutting-edge microprocessors for customers including Apple and Nvidia.

Today, the company that partially exists because of a textbook is a $500 billion juggernaut that has put the most advanced chips in iPhones, cars, supercomputers and fighter jets. So critical are its airplane-hangar-size chip factories, called fabs, that the United States, Japan and Europe have courted TSMC to build them in their neck of the woods. Over the past decade, China has also invested hundreds of billions of dollars to recreate what TSMC has done.

Mr. Chang’s unlikely entrepreneurial journey helped Taiwan become an economic giant, restructured the way the electronics industry worked and ultimately charted a new geopolitical reality in which a linchpin of global economic growth lies in one of the world’s most volatile spots.

That has thrust Mr. Chang, and the company he created, into the spotlight. And at the twilight of his career, a man who has preferred to remain in the shadows reflected on what he has built and what it means to no longer be able to stay under the radar.

“It doesn’t make me feel particularly good,” said Mr. Chang, who retired in 2018 but still appears at TSMC events. “I would rather stay relatively unknown.”

Over a recent three-hour discussion in his office, Mr. Chang made it clear that he identifies as American — he obtained his U.S. citizenship in 1962 — at a time when the company he founded is at the center of a technological Cold War between the United States and China. Even as the rivalry for tech leadership intensifies, he does not give China much of a chance for semiconductor supremacy.

“We control all the choke points,” Mr. Chang said, referring collectively to the United States and its

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How God Of War 2018 Became The New Blueprint For Prestige Gaming

God of War is celebrating its five-year anniversary today, April 20, 2023. Below, we take a look at how the relatively recent release has had echoes of influence across the AAA development landscape.

As a highly successful reboot of a legendary (though dated) trilogy, God of War 2018 garnered not only ecstatic reviews from critics, but also 23 million in sales by the end of 2022. However, while many great games come and go, this one achieved something that few others do–it’s become a major blueprint that AAA developers look to follow in their own projects.

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God of War 2018’s influence is most evident in a number of elements that have become staples of the contemporary single-player AAA landscape, such as colored loot systems in action games, Souls-inspired combat, an extravagant presentation, and map design that bridges the gap between linear and open-world. Some noted developers have called out the game as a major milestone that they hope to reach, including Final Fantasy XVI director Hiroshi Takai. In a recent interview Takai even said that God of War is the game that XVI most resembles in terms of quest design, which surely will surprise some fans.

God of War 2018’s presentation is arguably its most striking aspect. Santa Monica Studios’ decision to trade the fixed camera angles of the previous trilogy for the “one take” over-the-shoulder view of the reboot is well-known as a masterstroke, but the strength of its visuals go beyond

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Minister: Ukraine will beat Russia in war of technologies

KYIV, Ukraine (AP) — As Ukrainian and Russian troops fight typical battles on the front traces, Europe’s very first key war of the web age has also sparked a war of technology as both of those sides vie for the gain with their drones and satellite communications.

Whilst the two sides have held speed with one particular another so much, Ukraine’s minister in charge of technological know-how instructed The Connected Press in an interview Friday that he was confident his country experienced the determination and capabilities to out-innovate Russia in the stop.

Mykhailo Fedorov, Ukraine’s Minister of Electronic Transformation, reported unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, digital warfare, satellite communications and other systems experienced been a fundamental portion of the war with Russia that commenced extra than a calendar year in the past.

“Technologies permit regular and contemporary artillery to be more correct, and they enable preserve the life of our troopers,” he mentioned.

“When you have ‘eyes’ more than you, you can make a lot more effective selections about taking care of your troops.”

He acknowledged that Russia was also knowledgeable of the great importance of technology on the battlefield, and was actively building and improving its very own.

“Every day, there are new UAVs on the battlefield from our facet and from Russia’s aspect,” Fedorov stated. “We see what kind of drones they have. We get, disassemble and study them.”

He reported the govt was arranging investments in new technological innovation assignments to inspire further more competitors and innovation.

“In this technology war we will surely acquire,” he stated. “Even if less than 50-60% of supported initiatives will give some final result, it can be decisive on the battlefield.”

In latest weeks, anticipation of a attainable Ukrainian counteroffensive this spring has risen. Fedorov said it was not possible to picture any successful functions without the need of systems on the battlefield.

Ukraine has not mounted a main procedure to liberate occupied territories due to the fact it retook the metropolis of Kherson and element of the encompassing province last November. Nevertheless, the frequency of documented drone attacks in Russia has amplified.

More than the earlier months, a spate of drone strikes has targeted spots in southern and western Russia, reflecting the growing reach of the Ukrainian army. Just after every strike, Russian authorities blamed Ukraine, but Ukrainian official stopped shorter of openly professing responsibility. Alternatively, they emphasised the appropriate to assault any goal in response to the Russian aggression.

Fedorov mentioned the result of Ukraine’s drone warfare could be seen in Russia’s actions, noting that Russia has now started out transferring armored machines additional from the entrance line.

“There have been particular events that have altered the predicament, but we carry on to scale this practical encounter,” he stated, but refused to be drawn on the specifics.

Commenting on the struggle for the city of Bakhmut, the longest of the war so far, Fedorov stated that the “use of systems is invaluable in these kinds of conditions.”

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How ‘Chip War’ Puts Nations In Technologies Arms Race

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The extremely elaborate, significant-stakes organization of producing semiconductors has constantly been a battle of company giants. Now it’s also a race amongst governments. These important bits of technological know-how — also identified as built-in circuits or, a lot more frequently, just chips — may possibly be the tiniest however most exacting products ever produced. And simply because they’re so challenging and expensive to make, there’s a worldwide reliance on just a handful of organizations, a dependence that was introduced into stark aid by shortages during the pandemic. Accessibility to chips has also develop into a geopolitical weapon, with the US ratcheting up curbs on exports to China to consist of the rise of an economic rival. 

1. Why the war above chips? 

Chipmaking has grow to be an progressively precarious enterprise. New vegetation have a cost tag of a lot more than $20 billion, take years to build and require to be run flat-out for 24 hours a working day to convert a earnings. The scale needed has reduced the amount of firms with major-edge technological innovation to just three — Taiwan Semiconductor Producing Co. (TSMC), South Korea’s Samsung Electronics Co. and Intel Corp. of the US. Chipmakers have been below escalating scrutiny above what they sell to China, the major market place for chips. Nationwide stability concerns, shifts in the world-wide provide chain and the pandemic-period shortages led governments from the US and Europe to China and Japan to subsidize investment in new manufacturing traces costing tens of billions of dollars. Far more recently, slowing economies have curbed international demand from customers, leading to a glut of unwelcome chips. 

2. Why are chips so significant? 

They’re what is essential to approach and fully grasp the mountains of data that have arrive to rival oil as the lifeblood of the financial system. Made from elements deposited on disks of silicon, chips can perform a wide range of features. Memory chips, which store knowledge, are somewhat easy and are traded like commodities. Logic chips, which operate systems and act as the brains of a system, are extra intricate and high-priced. As the technological know-how managing devices — from rockets to refrigerators — is receiving smarter and a lot more linked, semiconductors are at any time much more pervasive. That explosion has some analysts forecasting that the marketplace will double in benefit this 10 years. Paying on research and development for chips is dominated by US businesses, with far more than fifty percent the full. 

3. How did we go from chip shortages to a glut? 

Pandemic lockdowns and source chain disruption made lots of styles of chips scarce for about two years. With demand from customers for phones and individual personal computers cooling off put up-pandemic, the cycle has turned. Pc and smartphone makers have slashed orders for chips as shoppers tighten the purse strings, and there is oversupply in regions these kinds of as industrial equipment and cloud computing. The chipmakers are responding by reining

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How blockchain might help prosecute Russian war crimes in Ukraine

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The Russian invasion of Ukraine in many ways has become one of the world’s first digital wars, with combatants from both sides fighting for advantage on social media, Western players embarking on attempts to raise cryptocurrency for Ukraine, and a Ukrainian minister taking to Twitter to persuade global companies to intervene digitally.

Now there’s a new frontier. To bolster the kind of war-crimes evidence that has not always proved easy to admit to international courts, a group is looking to the technology behind cryptocurrency and non-fungible tokens, or NFTs.

The project, which comes out of the Starling Lab and is backed by Stanford University and the University of Southern California, is using decentralizing technologies to ensure that visual evidence that is being gathered and uploaded in Ukraine doesn’t fall victim to the evidence-collection missteps of war crimes past. The project — which boasts human rights experts and former government officials among its leaders — hopes to use blockchain technology as well as other tools to ensure that evidence isn’t lost, challenged or corrupted by those who want the alleged crimes of the Russian invasion force covered up.

“Technology offers us so many more tools to go after perpetrators than we’ve ever had before,” said Jonathan Dotan, a former lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, staffer at the Stanford School of Engineering and a writer on the streaming show “Silicon Valley” who co-founded the Starling Lab. “Unfortunately, the perpetrators have much better tools too. So we need to fight back as hard as we can.”

Joining Dotan is John Jaeger, a former State Department employee who founded Hala, a private company funded by the U.S. government that uses artificial intelligence to gather unencrypted intelligence in war zones; Graham Brookie, who runs the Atlantic Council’s tech-minded Digital Forensic Research Lab; and Stephen Smith, a British genocide scholar and the former executive director of USC’s Shoah Foundation, who has pioneered holographic testimony that he now oversees at a company called Storyfile.

Their hope is that some of the same technologies that power cryptocurrency will make it harder for Russian President Vladimir Putin and his aides to fog up prosecutions with misinformation on social media platforms, as they’ve tried to do with the images of Ukraine’s Bucha massacre that recently surfaced.

For many Americans, the blockchain is incomprehensible; for others it is simply a way to power an NFT bubble or a widespread cryptoscam. But war-crimes prosecution may provide an unequivocally positive use.

Together, Dotan, Smith, Brookie and Jaeger have spent the past five weeks building a team of engineers and legal experts in Ukraine and the United States in an effort to make the images and video uploaded to Telegram, TikTok and other platforms more airtight against war-criminal defenses.

“Social media images as they currently exist are just not going to slow down or prevent or ultimately indict war criminals. They’re just too suspect to manipulation,” Smith said. “If we’re going to do justice

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US, by restricting technological innovation exports, hurting Russia’s skill to wage war in Ukraine: Officials

Two Commerce officers spoke to ABC Information about sanctions enforcement.

As the war in Ukraine proceeds, a person place of work within the Commerce Office in Washington is at the crossroads of innovation and national stability when it arrives to sanctions on Russia.

The Bureau of Marketplace and Stability (BIS) has been controlling and imposing exports from the United States, and when Russia invaded Ukraine, the bureau jumped in.

Export controls, in accordance to Thea D. Rozman Kendler, assistant secretary of commerce for export administration, are a “nationwide security resource” to preserve “sensitive American technologies” from nations that would in any other case use it maliciously. Some examples, she said, are products, technological innovation and application.

“Russia depends on overseas technology for most of its high-technologies output,” she stated. “They need our areas and factors, our technologies to make and maintenance weapons, planes, tanks, communications tools, whatsoever they require to wage war when Russia attacks Ukraine we were prepared with our allies and partners to impose hard limitations on what could be offered to Russia. With a widespread aim of degrading Russia’s army abilities.”

Kendler explained as Russia’s armed service machines runs out, it will require software updates and won’t get them thanks to the export controls the BIS placed on items.

“Russia cannot make people weapons of war with out us and partner country technology,” she discussed. “And if we slash off [those] technologies, which is what we have experimented with to do in the final two months, we are instantly limiting their potential to wage war.”

Matthew Axelrod, assistant secretary for export enforcement, claimed it is not in Chinese businesses curiosity to flout these controls and Chinese firms that keep on to source Russia with items on the the listing would deal with harsh penalties.

“If there is a plant in China which is building semiconductors and sending them to Russia, the type of semiconductors that aren’t permitted, they’re not able to do that without having U.S. technological help, including program updates, like on website teams that will assistance with the software package and the tooling,” he spelled out

Axlerod explained that if U.S. companies willfully violate some of the export and import bans put on Russia there could be significant outcomes, even jail time.

“If we locate that people today are willfully violating a law and delivery products to Russia that are prohibited by the policies, that’s a prison violation. And folks I do the job with each and every day are federal prison regulation enforcement agents,” he stated. “We deliver scenarios in link with the Justice Department … throughout the region versus companies that that criminally violate the export management rules.”

Both of those Axelrod and Kendler served as prosecutors in the Justice Office and they say that working experience

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